The Liquid Gold Project – Monitoring Mother’s Milk!

The Liquid Gold Project – Monitoring Mother’s Milk!

Monitoring mother’s milk through ages and stages!

As some of you may know, our family of science awesomeness expanded over Christmas, as I welcomed our newest daughter Maizy into the world! So of course, once I got settled into life as a parent of a newborn, I immediately started planning a science project…

While I was pregnant, I knew I would want to breastfeed after she was born. I knew that breast milk contains a ton of vital nutrients, and that the composition of the milk changes over time to meet the demands of a growing baby. I wondered… what would my milk look like under the microscope? It would be SO cool to see something that I made to feed my baby, so close like that! Further, I wondered, would I even be able to notice any changes if I looked at it again in the future?

Enter The Liquid Gold Project!

I decided that I would take a scientific approach to my curiosity and closely monitor my breast milk every month. I would carefully document my findings by photographing each sample, making sure to note any color filters used on the microscope**. I also wanted to compare it with formula, since we had been supplementing since birth with one or two bottles per day.

**Additional notes can be found at the end of this post pertaining to the colors of the photos.

With this first installment of The Liquid Gold Project, I’ll be comparing the breast milk produced for my 2 1/2 month-old infant, with the Similac Advance that we had previously used for supplementation.

Keeping in mind that breastfeeding and formula feeding are sensitive topics for new moms, this post will be inherently supporting all moms who are feeding their babies. I want to celebrate how awesome it is that we all have and love our little babies, yet I also want to maintain an unbiased, scientific approach to the differences between breast milk and formula.

So, without further ado…

Breast Milk Under The Microscope!

It really IS Liquid Gold! Well, the light shining through it is! This is an unfiltered light shining through the specimen on my American Optical microscope.

I took advantage of the opportunity of being a nursing mom, to do something I’ve been wanting to do for a long time… put my breast milk under the microscope! What I found was a veritable gold mine of water, fat, white blood cells, bacteria, protein chains, amino acids, enzymes, and more. Of course, in the above picture, you can’t see many of these things as they are far too small! What we can see are water droplets, fat, and a smattering of white blood cells. Still, this was amazing! This nutrient-packed goodness was something I made, and it was incredible.

 When I saw this picture, I immediately shared it with my group of close mom friends. From there, it made its rounds on Facebook with everyone from individual moms to huge breastfeeding support groups sharing this photo! It even got picked up by trendy blogs like Cafe Mom’s The Stir and Mommy Page! Suddenly, there were moms all over the world, taking pride in the incredible things our bodies can do. I mean, we grew babies, brought them into the world, and now we can feed them! And we did it all from scratch! It was amazing to feel so empowered and to share these feelings with so many people!

After looking at breast milk under the microscope, I wanted to take a look at formula as well. We had been supplementing since birth, and I was really curious to see how it compared at a microscopic level.

Formula Under the Microscope!

Using the same lighting and same microscope, this is a look at infant formula!

What I found was fascinating! Instead of the uniformed structure found in breast milk, I saw tiny particles that seemed to have been broken down into smaller chains. I also found quite a few little solid clusters of formula that wouldn’t have been noticed by the naked eye, but were apparent under the microscope. These happened regardless of how I prepared the samples (swirled, shaken, or stirred)!

What’s The Difference?

To me, these samples looked very different from each other. I was curious as to why that was, so I did some research to find what each food is made of. What I found was equally fascinating! I spent a long time looking through research articles so I could understand what components makeup breast milk and formula, but even more than that, I wanted to understand what these things do. I’ve listed the composition of both breast milk and formula below…

Breast Milk Nutrient Content:

Fats (Neurological development, energy, tissue growth)
Lactoferrin (mainly in colostrum, these proteins work to prevent the survival and growth of bacteria, viruses, and fungi – essentially immune system machines for newborns!)
Antibodies and White Blood Cells (these are the defenders of the immune system!)
Proteins (These are used for cellular function, immune system function, structural function (tissues!), metabolism, and more! Some of these proteins are really cool. Three of them, when introduced to stomach acid, unfold, and bind to form a protein complex called HAMLET which kills tumor cells!)
Carbohydrates (provides energy for all bodily functions)
Vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, B12, D, and iodine)
Minerals (calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, and more)
Sodium Chloride (helps nerves fire messages along the body, helps intestines absorb nutrients, helps balance water and acids in the body)
Potassium Chloride (helps nerves fire messages off in the body, maintains integrity of cell membranes, vital for brain functions)
Immunoglobulin A (a very important antibody present in the mucous linings of our body responsible as the first line of defense )
Urea (carries waste and deals with water absorption!)
Uric Acid (antioxidant and electron donor!)
Creatine (creates ATP, which is a nucleotide used by cells for energy. ALL CELLS use this)
Creatinine (creates energy for muscular and neurological functions)
Amino Acids (these are used to build proteins!)
Nucleotides (these are the building blocks of DNA!)
Sugar complexes (including Oligosaccharides, which are complex sugar chains. These are ONLY found in human breast milk – nowhere else in nature!)
Bacteria (as many as 600 different strains, aiding in digestion and other bodily functions!)

Formula Nutrient Content:

Proteins (used for cellular function, immune system function, structural function (tissues!), metabolism, and more!)
Fats (in the form of vegetable and fish oils – for neurological development, tissue growth, and energy)
Cows Milk* (processed to reduce casein content (a complex protein chain that in large quantities, is difficult to digest) and increase whey content to make the ratio more similar to human milk)
Linoleic Acid (an omega-6 fatty acid, essential for cognitive development)
Vitamins (A, C, D, E, K, B1, B2, B5 B6, B12, Iodine)
Niacin (assists in metabolism of cells, and removal of toxins from the body)
Folic Acid (assists in producing and maintaining new cells, also assists in retaining purity of DNA and helping to prevent mutations which may cause cancer)
Minerals (calcium, zinc, magnesium, copper, iron, phosphorous)
Sodium Chloride (helps nerves fire messages along the body, helps intestines absorb nutrients, helps balance water and acids in the body)
Potassium Chloride 
(helps nerves fire messages off in the body, maintains integrity of cell membranes, vital for brain functions)
Carbohydrates (provides energy for all bodily functions)
(these are the building blocks of DNA!)
Emulsifiers and Stabilizers (these breakdown fats into smaller pieces and prevent the separation of oils and water in the formula)
Diluents (a filler, usually a form of skim milk, or water in milk free formulas)

*In cases of milk allergies, some infants may use soy milk, hydrolyzed, or amino acid-based formulas instead.

As I read through the research articles linked above, I found that breast milk contains a plethora of nutrients that change not only according to the age of the baby, but also by the time of day, the mother’s surrounding environment, her genetics, her pre-existing bacterial colonies, and of course, her diet. Breast milk contains nutrients that are synthesized directly from chemical reactions within the body, as well as antibodies and proteins that can be found nowhere else in nature!

Infant formula contains nutrients that are added to provide as close of a match as possible to the nutrients that are found in breast milk (and are often very successful!). While it lacks some of the components that breast milk contains, research is under way on how to include even more! Currently, research is being done on the benefits of adding probiotics to formula, in an attempt to match up to some of the bacterial benefits of breast milk.

There were some other interesting things that I saw in the formula as well. No matter how I prepared the samples (by shaking, stirring, or swirling the powdered formula into warm water), these air bubbles could be seen.

This unaltered image of Similac Advance For Supplementation under the microscope shows the presence of small clumps of solid formula as well as microscopic air bubbles.

I found that shaking the formula yielded the largest bubbles while stirring and swirling yielded smaller bubbles. The presence of air bubbles have been suggested to cause increased discomfort and digestive issues with babies. However, there are products on the market and methods of preparation that can possibly help.

These air bubbles were produced by shaking the formula to mix it.

All in all, it was fascinating to get such a close look at what I’ve been feeding my daughter! The breast milk truly looks beautiful under the microscope, and I am still blown away by the fact that I MADE THIS! It’s incredible, what the components of breast milk do for a baby. From the building blocks of DNA, to firing messages off along her nervous system, to providing a unique bacterial metropolis inside her body, as well as the first line of defenses against foreign invaders, this incredible nourishment we provide is as incredible as it is invaluable. It truly is Liquid Gold!

In regards to formula, science has come a long way in its understanding of what our babies need to grow and flourish. Research continues to this day on how to incorporate beneficial bacteria, vitamins, and additional proteins and amino acids into a baby’s diet. We still have more to research, and there are some things that will only be found in human breast milk, but we’re improving all the time and our babies are much better for it!

No matter how we do it, feeding our babies is a wonderful bonding experience. We’re all moms out here, trying to do what’s best for these little people we love the most. Moms of the world, take pride in this beautiful unique substance you have created. Be proud of the science that has your back and is constantly striving to add more and more vital goodness to your baby’s body and brain!

We should all take a good look at ourselves and know that no matter how we feed our babies, we ALL are working hard to nourish them with nutritious food as well as our mother’s love, and for that we are amazing.

Moms, and Dads…


**All of the pictures in this post were taken with my Samsung Galaxy 5 smartphone, through the eyepiece of my American Optical microscope, lit with Tungsten lighting. There is no color filtration added either digitally, or with color filters on my microscope. The color differences, as best as I can tell, occurred while I was taking the photos, by moving the phone away and closer to the eyepiece of the microscope.

Update: Snopes picked up this photo, as they had been receiving inquiries as to its legitimacy. I am SO proud to say that this heavily researched article and the photos within, stood up to their skeptical inquiry! Hooray for critical thinking and skepticism!!!! Here’s the snopes article, if you’d like to read more!


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  2. Milk is really golden. I wish more people could read this post and be as informed as I have been. Thanks for sharing.

  3. Im making video utilizing all your photo and will connect back to your blog. Much obliged to you such a great amount with your report.

  4. Really it is very different color of breast milk like golden view. If you are storing breast milk for your healthy full term baby, these tips will help.

  5. Im making video using all your picture and will link back to your blog. Thank you so much with your report.

  6. Hi Amy ~ Love your photos of breastmilk. Do I have your permission to use a photo your previously posted of foremilk & hindmilk in a lactation education presentation for nurses? Please email me your permission at Thanks in advance.

  7. Hi Amy. I feel amazed with your report and broud to be moms supporter as Lactation Consultant. Can i get your help of knowing how much calories could be on both foremilk and hind milk! I know the mature milk contain 67 cal per dl as per books. But our hospital doctors claims mothers milk doese not contain enough energy that babies at NICU needs supplementation with either fortifier or formula; depends on the baby weight gaining and gestation. I do understand preterm babies may need fortifier but should not be the case with all. It will help to know such fact on both term babies and preterm banies as there should be difference.
    Really appreciating any updated knowledge that i can use discussing with them such situations ^_^

  8. I linked to your post in my blog about breastfeeding. I hope that's okay! Thanks for sharing your research. 🙂

  9. Absolutely, please feel free! Just link back to this page in the photo credit. 🙂

  10. Dear, i would like to repost your picture for my blog entry to help encourage fellow malaysian to breastfeed their babies. Hope you dont mind 🙂

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